What Is Manual Testing?

Introduction To Manual Testing

Making sure that apps are reliable and of high quality is crucial in the fast-paced field of software development. A basic method for ensuring software satisfies intended specifications and performs as expected is manual testing. We will discuss the several forms of manual testing, their importance, and what they include in this article. In order to guarantee a good testing procedure, let’s explore the world of manual testing and learn best practices.

Understanding Manual Testing

When testing manually, test cases are carried out by human testers without the use of automated tools. Testers find bugs and usability concerns in software by simulating real-user interactions. They also verify the overall quality of the product. 

Importance of Manual Testing

  • Early Bug Identification

Early in the development cycle, manual testing aids in finding defects and usability problems, facilitating quicker resolution.

  • Testing for Usability

Manual testing makes the program intuitive and user-friendly by concentrating on the end-user experience.

  • Exploratory Testing

To find unexpected flaws and possible areas for improvement, testers apply their imagination and subject knowledge.

  • Non-Operative Examinations

For non-functional tests like usability, performance, and security testing, manual testing is useful.

Guidelines for Efficient Manual Testing

  • Test Planning: Using requirements as a guide, clearly define the scope, objectives, and test cases.
  • Data management: To cover a range of situations and edge cases, use relevant test data.
  • Test Documentation: To monitor the status and outcomes of tests, keep thorough test records.
  • Bug Reporting: Send in-depth bug reports that include the severity, procedures to reproduce the problem, and any necessary supporting documentation.
  • Encourage efficient communication and cooperation between stakeholders, developers, and testers.

Types of Manual Testing

  • Tests of Function

confirming that, in accordance with the requirements stated, each application function performs as anticipated.

  • Testing of User Interfaces (UI)

evaluating the application’s user interface to ensure that it follows design principles and is consistent in its appearance, feel, and arrangement.

  • Testing for Regression

Retesting previously confirmed features to make sure updated modifications don’t introduce flaws.

  • Assessment of Acceptance

confirming that the program satisfies user needs and is prepared for release into production.

  • Investigative Testing

informal testing without pre-written test scripts to find bugs and investigate the behavior of the program.

  • Testing APIs

API behavior and functionality can be confirmed by hand testing. To make sure the API operates as intended, testers can run requests over the API and examine the answers. When using manual methods for API testing, the following elements are usually involved:

  1. Request Verification: Testers make sure that the proper headers and parameters are included in API calls.
  2. Response Validation: Testers verify that API answers follow API requirements and are accurate and data-integrated.
  3. Error Handling: Testers evaluate the API’s ability to accept unexpected or invalid inputs and make sure the right error replies are sent back.
  4. Endpoint testing: Testers verify that different API endpoints perform as intended, accounting for both success and failure cases.
  • Testing for Security

In order to find vulnerabilities and evaluate the overall security posture of software applications, manual security testing is essential. When security testing is done manually, the following tasks are frequently involved:

Testing for Usability

  • The goal of usability testing is to evaluate an application’s end-users level of ease of use and intuitiveness. In order to find any usability problems, such as complicated navigation, imprecise directions, or laborious workflows, testers mimic real-world user interactions. Improving user happiness and the overall user experience (UX) is the goal of usability testing.
  • Testing for Compatibility

Compatibility testing ensures that the program runs smoothly and displays properly across a range of hardware, operating systems, browsers, and platforms. Testers confirm that the program retains its intended appearance and functioning in various settings.

  • Testing for Localization

The purpose of localization testing is to evaluate an application’s ability to adjust to various regional settings, languages, and cultures. Testers confirm that locale-specific components such as currencies, date formats, and translated information appear consistently and accurately.

  • Testing for Accessibility

The purpose of accessibility testing is to determine if an application can be used by people with disabilities, such as visual problems, hearing issues, or motor challenges. In order to guarantee equitable access for all users, testers evaluate adherence to accessibility standards (such as the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, or WCAG).

  • On-the-spot testing

Ad hoc testing is a type of unplanned, unstructured testing in which testers investigate an application without using pre-written test cases. Testers find bugs, evaluate usability, and learn about the behavior of the product by applying their ingenuity and domain knowledge.

Testing for Smoke

After a new build or release, smoke testing, often referred to as build verification testing, is a fast check to make sure the program’s essential features continue to function. It facilitates the early detection of significant flaws during testing.

  • Examination of Sanity

Sanity testing is a type of regression testing that concentrates on examining particular sections of the program that have undergone recent modifications. It assists in making sure that bug fixes or new features do not cause significant problems.

  • Testing the Installation

Installation testing checks that the program has been installed and uninstalled correctly, that all required files have been copied, and that the program has integrated smoothly with the system.

  • Testing for Recovery
  • The purpose of recovery testing is to evaluate how well an application bounces back from errors, crashes, or unplanned disruptions. After recovery, testers assess if the system restores data and functioning.
  • Testing Configurations

Testing an application with various hardware, software, network, and other system parameter configurations is known as configuration testing. Testers confirm that the program runs accurately and efficiently in a range of configurations.

  • Testing for Data Integrity

Data integrity testing ensures that the application accurately stores, processes, and retrieves data. Testers verify the completeness, accuracy, and consistency of data, particularly when working with important data.

  • Testing Boundaries

Testing an application’s behavior at the limits of its input ranges is known as boundary testing. In order to identify any potential flaws relating to boundary values, testers test the inputs’ lowest and maximum bounds.

  • Testing by Volume

Volume testing evaluates how well an application functions and behaves when processing substantial amounts of data. Testers confirm that the program can effectively handle the anticipated data load.

  • Testing for Endurance

Endurance testing, sometimes referred to as soak testing, assesses the functionality of the program under extended and continuous use. To find performance issues and memory leaks over time, testers run the program for a long time.

  • Testing for Recovery (Disaster Recovery)

Verifying the application’s capacity to recover from severe errors or calamities is the main goal of recovery testing. Testers validate the recovery procedure by simulating events like system crashes or data loss.

  • Testing for Security Penetration

In order to find security flaws in the application, penetration testing simulates actual attacks. Testers highlight possible security hazards and try to exploit flaws.

  • Testing for Interoperability

Interoperability testing examines how well an application works and can interact with other programs, hardware, and third-party APIs. Testers make sure that data is sent and components integrate and work together seamlessly.

  • Testing for Compliance

Compliance testing confirms whether the application complies with legal or industry requirements. Testing professionals evaluate adherence to regulations like GDPR, HIPAA, or PCI DSS, based on the domain of the application.

  • Acceptance Testing for Users (UAT)

End users test the application during user acceptance testing to see if it satisfies their needs and is prepared for production release. The suitability of the application for end users is verified by testers.

  • Testing for Localization

Testing for localization ensures that the program is compatible with a variety of languages, cultural norms, and geographical environments. Testers evaluate if the localized version preserves the desired user experience and operates as intended.

  • Testing for Globalization

Testing for globalization makes sure that the program is capable of handling different character encodings, cultural norms, and language-specific components. The application’s suitability for global markets is confirmed by testers.

  • Beta Testing

Prior to the official release, a small number of users or customers are given access to the software during beta testing. Users’ feedback is gathered by testers in order to spot possible problems and learn about actual usage circumstances.

  • Field Examining

Testing an application in its actual functioning environment or under real-world circumstances is known as field testing or real-world testing. In real-world situations, testers evaluate the functionality, dependability, and performance of the program.

  • Examining Globalization

Verifying the program’s ability to handle various character encodings, cultural norms, and language-specific elements is known as globalization testing. Testers validate that the application is appropriate for international markets.

  • Beta Testing

During beta testing, a limited number of users or customers are granted access to the software before its official release. Testers collect user feedback to identify potential issues and understand real-world usage scenarios.

  • Field Inspection

Field testing, also referred to as real-world Testing in manual testing, is the process of testing an application in its actual operating environment or under real-world conditions. Testers assess the program’s performance, dependability, and functionality in real-world scenarios.


The software testing lifecycle still cannot function without manual testing, which enables thorough analysis, user-centric assessment, and extensive defect discovery. Testers can guarantee strong software quality and provide outstanding user experiences by paying close attention to various forms of manual testing and adhering to best practices. Development teams may meet the demands of today’s changing digital landscape and improve the overall quality of software products by utilizing  Manual testing in software testing in conjunction with other testing approaches.